Taraxacum F.H.Wigg.

First published in Prim. Fl. Holsat.: 56 (1780)
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.

Descriptions

Ghazanfar, S. A., Edmondson, J. R. & Hind, D. J. N. (Eds). (2019). Flora of Iraq, Volume 6: Compositae.Kew Publishing

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs with a milky latex, often arachnoid-pilose
Morphology Leaves
Leaves numerous, congested into a rosette
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Scape
Scape almost invariably with a single head
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Phyllaries
Phyllaries biseriate, outer unequal, spirally arranged, some or all callose, corniculate or with a larger horn-like process, sometimes flat, inner equal in length and with broadly membranous margins; receptacle naked
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Florets hermaphrodite, almost always ligulate; style bifid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achenes most frequently with a spinulose apex which passes into a conical or cylindrical pyramid often with a colourless beak, rarely erostrate; pappus of very many numerous delicate barbellate persistent setae, white or somewhat coloured.
Distribution
Worldwide in distribution, with the exception of the tropical and subtropical regions; there are over 2000 species and microspecies.
Etymology
Taraxacum (possibly derived from the Pers. talkh chakok, “bitter herb”, or from the Gr. ταραξος, taraxos, or ταραξια, taraxia, ‘heckler’ or ‘agitator’ in modern Gr. but more likely a reference to a medical disorder, as the plant provided a traditional cure for eye problems.)
[FIQ]

Compositae, H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs with a rosette of leaves and a solitary capitulum on a leafless, hollow scape
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually pinnatilobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Capitulum
Capitula with phyllaries in two unequal rows
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, rarely whitish
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achenes fusiform, with a long beak; pappus of barbellate bristles.
[FTEA]

Compositae, G. V. Pope. Flora Zambesiaca 6:1. 1992

Morphology General Habit
Perennial scapigerous herbs with simple or branched taproots.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves radical, rosulate, entire, sinuate-dentate or runcinate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Scape
Scapes 1-many, simple, hollow; capitula large solitary terminal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Involucres oblong-campanulate; phyllaries 2-seriate, the inner series erect, the outer series shorter and spreading or recurved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacle ± flat, epaleate, pitted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corollas yellow (white), ligulate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers sagittate at the base with shortly setaceous-acuminate auricles.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style branches long slender, sweeping hairs long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Achenes fusiform-oblanceolate, many-ribbed, narrowed and shortly conical above before tapering ± abruptly into a slender stalk-like beak (rostrum), beaks rarely absent, the ribs antrorsely muricate or echinate above.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Pappus many-seriate consisting of numerous slender, unequal setae.
[FZ]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Iraq

    • Ghazanfar, S. A., Edmondson, J. R. (Eds). (2013-2019). Flora of Iraq, Volumes 5.1, 5.2 and 6.0. Kew Publishing
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0