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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical to S. Siberia.

[O-EM]
General Description

Terrestrial, rarely epiphytic, herbs with hairy tubers or long fleshy roots. Stem unbranched. Leaves several-many, lanceolate, ovate oblong or elliptic, sheathing at the base, arranged along stem or clustered at the base or in the middle, or with 1-2 basal leaves appressed to the ground and the cauline leaves sheath-like. lnflorescence terminal, one- to many-flowered. Flowers usually resupinate, green and/or white, rarely with a yellow, pink, or red labellum. Sepals usually free, the dorsal sepal often forming a hood with the petals; lateral sepals spreading or reflexed. Petals entire, two-lobed or bifid. Labellum entire or three-lobed, spurred at base; the side lobes sometimes clivided; the spur long or short, slender or saccate, often inflated at apex. Column long or short; anther erect or reclinate, the loculi either adjacent or separated by a U-shaped connective; anther canals long or short, almost always adnate to side lobes of rostellum; lateral appendages two, sometimes two-lobed; pollinaria two, each with a sectile pollinium, long or short caudicle, and a small, naked viscidium; stigmatic processes two, long or short, usually free but sometimes joined in lower part to rostellum. (PC).

Ecology

Species of the widespread genus, Habenaria, are usually terrestrial orchids that perennate by means of underground tubers. More rarely they are epiphytic herbs, such as H. procera Lindl., which often grows on oil palm trees (Elaeis guineensis A. Cheval.) in western Africa and is typically found among ferns and mosses in lowland rain forest in eastern Africa (Summerhayes 1968). Throughout the range of the genus, Habenaria species frequently grow in damp or wet habitats including marshes, bogs, water meadows, seasonally flooded grasslands ('dambos' and 'vleis' in Africa), seepage slopes and wet flushes on hillsides, riverbank habitats, swamp forest, and tropical wet evergreen forest (Holttum 1964; Ohwi 1965; Summerhayes 1968; Miller 1978; Polunin and Stainton 1984; la Croix and Cribb 1995). Some species even grow in standing or slowly running water. Other members of the genus inhabit drier areas such as grassland and dry deciduous woodland (la Croix and Cribb 1995). A few African species are reported to occur on old termite mounds (e.g. H. armatissima Rchb.f.), and other Habenaria orchids frequently grow in stoney soil or shallow soil among rocks, which may be either wet or dry. The underlying substrate from areas in which Habenaria species grow includes limestone, granite, quartzite, and laterite (Holttum 1964; la Croix and Cribb 1995). Soil types range from peaty to sandy (Summerhayes 1968; la Croix and Cribb 1995).
Habenaria species growing in open or exposed habitats, such as montane grasslands, receive high light-levels, but others are shade-tolerant plants that occur in deciduous or evergreen woodlands throughout the range of the genus. In Africa Habenaria grows in a variety of vegetation types including Brachystegia (Fabaceae), Uapaca (Euphorbiaceae), and Cryptosepalum (Fabaceae) woodlands, mopani bush, Syzigium (Myrtaceae) thickets, Miombo woodland, and Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) and pine plantations (la Croix and Cribb 1995). ln Papua New Guinea, Habenaria species are common in the Morobe lowland rainforests growing in the deep litter of the forest floor (Millar 1978), and in the United States H. quinqueseta (Michx.) Sw. occurs in pine and other woods in the southern states of America (Rickett 1966).
Habenaria species grow at a wide range of elevations from lowlands to high montane areas. For example, in South Africa Habenaria Lindl. occurs only in coastal bush on stabilized sand-dunes (Schelpe 1966), and in Japan species such as H. sagittifera Rchb.f. are typically found in bogs and wet grasslands at low elevations (Ohwi 1965). Other species are mountain plants. Habenaria pectinata D. Don occurs in the Himalayas up to 3000 m (Hooker 1894; Polunin and Stainton 1984) and in Uganda, Kenya, and Ethiopia at 2200-3300 m in upland moorland. Habenaria bracteosa Hochst. ex A. Rich., a mountain-forest species from eastern Africa, grows above the forest zone at 2200-3600 m (Summerhayes 1968). Some species grow across a wide elevational range, for example the widespread tropical African orchids H. welwitschii Rchb.f. and H. arianae D. Geerinck, which grow in grasslands at elevations of 0-2000 m and 600-2300 m, respectively.
Flowering of Habenaria usually takes place from July to October or October to January in different parts of Asia (Ohwi 1965; Dassanyake 1981; Polunin and Stain ton 1984), from August to January in the United States (Rickctt 1966), and between October and April (to June) in tropical Africa (la Croix and Cribb 1995). Fruit-set data have been colleccted in tropical Africa (la Croix and Cribb 1995), and levels of reproductive success could be expected to be high given that members of the genus are nectariferous (Neiland and Wilcock 1998). New tubers probably begin to form following flowering and are the means by which the plants survive the dry season in some regions. Tubers may also allow vegetative spread. For example, la Croix and Cribb (1995) noted that H. nyikensis G. Williamson, a species endemic to Malawi, rarely flowers but does form large colonies in open montanc grassland and Brachystegia woodland habitats. Mycorrhizal associations have been investigated for some Habenaria species, such as H. rariflora from southern India, the root systems of which were heavily infected with mycorrhiza (Raja et al. 1996). At least one species, H. saprophytica J. Bosser & P. J. Cribb, is reported to be achlorophyllous (Bosser and Cribb 1996).
Habenaria includes both rare and common species. Some are endemics with restricted distributions, for example H. pubipetala Summerh. which is confined to six localities in Malawi (la Croix 1994). Others have become scaree through over-collection, such as H. camea N. E. Br. in Malaysia (Holttum 1964). In China, H. delavayi Finet and H. dentata Schltr. are collected for use in herbal medicine (Chen and Tang 1982). Cribb noted that H. taeniodema Summcrh. from the highlands of Ethiopia is possibly on the verge of extinction because of threats to its scrubland habitat and coLlection of the plant itself (IUCN Orchid Specialist Group 1996). Pradhan (lUCN Orchid Specialist Group 1996) listed five Habenaria species as among the most threatened orchids in India, either because of their localized distribution (e.g. H. pseudophrys King & Pantl.) or because thay have not been recorded for a long time (e.g. H. pachycaulon Hook.f.). Cadet (1989) suggested that three endangered Habenaria species should be protected on the island of Reunion in the Mascarenes. (RN).

Distribution

A genus of about 600 species, in tropical and subtropical regions of Old and New World. (PC).

[FZ]

Orchidaceae, I. la Croix & P.J. Cribb. Flora Zambesiaca 11:1. 1995

Morphology General Habit
Terrestrial, rarely epiphytic, herb with tuberoids or long fleshy roots.
Morphology Stem
Stem unbranched.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves several–many, arranged along stem or clustered at the base, or with 1–2 basal leaves appressed to the ground and the cauline leaves sheath-like.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal, 1 to many-flowered.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually resupinate, in African species green and/or white, rarely yellow.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals usually free, the dorsal sepal often forming a hood with the petals; lateral sepals spreading or reflexed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals entire, 2-lobed or bifid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Labellum
Lip entire or 3-lobed, spurred at base; the side lobes sometimes divided; the spur long or short, slender or saccate, often inflated at apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Column
Column long or short; anther erect or reclinate, the loculi either adjacent or separated by a U-shaped connective; anther canals long or short, almost always adnate to side lobes of rostellum; auricles (staminodes) 2, sometimes 2-lobed; pollinaria 2, each with a sectile pollinium, long or short caudicle and a small, naked viscidium; stigmatic processes 2, long or short, usually free but sometimes joined in lower part to rostellum.

[FTEA]

Orchidaceae, V. S. Summerhayes. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Terrestrial, or rarely epiphytic, herbs with elongated fleshy or tuberous roots
Morphology Stem
Stems unbranched, sometimes very short
Morphology Leaves
Leaves variously arranged along the stem, sometimes 1 or 2 radical and adpressed closely to the ground, the cauline ones sometimes sheath-like
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal, 1-many-flowered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually resupinate, but in a few species not so, usually white and/or green, rarely yellow, orange or pink
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals usually free, the laterals spreading, the dorsal often forming a helm with the 2 petals
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals often adherent to the dorsal sepal, entire or variously divided, often 2-lobed nearly to the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Labellum
Lip usually slightly adnate at the base to the column, the free part entire or variously divided or lobed, spurred at the base; spur short, sac-like to long and slender
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Column
Column tall or short, slender or thickened; anther upright or reclinate, the loculi adjacent and parallel with a narrow connective, or separated from one another by a much broadened filament and ± divergent, canals short or much elongated, adnate to the lateral lobes of the rostellum, auricles (staminodes) sometimes elongated or 2-lobed, usually rugose; pollinaria 2, each with sectile pollinium, short or elongated caudicle and rather small naked viscidium; stigmatic processes distinct, shortly club-shaped to very long with capitate or club-shaped apices, usually free, but sometimes united in the lower part to the rostellum, the rostellum side lobes divergent, short or long, middle lobe tall and overtopping the anther to short and very blunt or scarcely developed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsules oblong or fusiform.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Terrestrial herbs with globose to elongated root tubers
Morphology Leaves
Leaves variously arranged along the stem, sometimes 1 or 2 radical and appressed to the ground
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal, erect, few–many-flowered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually white and/or green
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals entire, the laterals spreading, the dorsal often forming a hood over the column
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Lip entire or variously divided or lobed, spurred at base; spur usually long and slender, rarely short and sac-like Lateral petals entire or 2-lobed, often nearly to the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Column
Column tall or short with 2 sectile pollinia; stigmatic processes ± club-shaped, often very long.
Distribution
A genus with more than 800 species, widespread in tropical and subtropical areas.

[O-EM]
Use

A few species are cultivated, notably the Asiatic H. rhodocheila, which has a red or yellow lip.
Lawler (1984) listed several uses for Habenaria species. Some species have been used as charms. Habenaria dives Rchb.f., H. dregeana LindJ., and H. epipactidea Rchb.f. were used as charms in South Africa, the first as a death charm; tubers are mixed with food and the victim then expected to waste away (Rayner 1977). The tubers of H. walleri Rchb.f. in Malawi have been used as food, prepared in the form of a jelly, which is boiled with salted water and served with peanuts as a side dish (Williamson 1955). Habenaria acuminata Thw. ex Trimen. and H. commelinifolia Lindl. are both used as food in India, the latter boiled to make a gruel (Duggal 1972; Usher 1974). Habenaria tubers are used as famine food and fed to pigs in New Guinea (Massal and Barrau 1955; Triede 1967; Powell 1976). The tubers of H. multipartita Bl. ex Kranzl. are eaten in Java (Bakhuisen van der Brink 1937), as are those of H. rumphii Lindl. in Ambon (Rumphius 1741- 1750; Smith 1927).
A decoction of the boiled tubers is widely used medicinally: an infusion of boiled tubers of H. cirrhata Rchb.f. for curing indigestion in Kenya (Kokwaro 1976); H. macrandra Lindl. as a purgative, and H. walleri Rchb.f. for stomach diseases in East Africa (Kokwaro 1976); H. ciliolaris Kranzl. for internal injuries in Sichuan, China (Cheo 1947, Hu 1971 a, b); H sp. for infected wounds in lndo-China (Dournes 1955); H. miersiana Champ. ex Benth. for dressed wounds and swellings by aboriginal people in Taiwan; and for colic in Sichuan (Cheo 1947, Liu 1952; Hu 1971 a, b). An infusion of the tubers of Habenaria species has been used in South Africa to promote fertility (Rayner 1977). Salep, used as food and an aphrodisiac or restorative in lndia and Myanmar (Burma), is produced from the tubers of H. commelinifolia and other species (Chopra et al. 1956; Kirtikar and Basu 1918; Nair 1963). (PC).

Doubtfully present in:

Southwest Caribbean

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Inner Mongolia, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Carolina, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Extinct in:

Cape Verde

Introduced into:

Hawaii

Habenaria Willd. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 10, 1994 Schessl, M. [3010], Brazil K000847520
Jan 1, 1993 Schessl, M. [216/1-1], Brazil K000847521
Aug 7, 1970 Harley, R.M. [11487], Brazil K000847513
Williamson, G. [683], Zambia 11887.018
Williamson, G. [620], Zambia 11887.019
Tweedie, E.M. [1266], Kenya 1639.000
Jacques-Felix, H. [1949], Guinea 1640.000
Barnes, E., India 1641.000
1642.000
Barnes, E. [1999], India 1643.000
Richards, M. [4175], Zambia 17274.000
Williamson, G. [633], Zambia 17326.003
Williamson, G. [622], Zambia 17326.005
Williamson, G. [749], Zambia 17326.022
Williamson, G. [360], Zambia 1800.023
Williamson, G. [819], Zambia 1800.028
Williamson, G. [249], Zambia 1800.035
Zambia 1800.052
Williamson, G. [231], Zambia 1800.066
Zambia 1800.070
Williamson, G. [273], Zambia 27461.024
Williamson, G. [622], Zambia 27461.044
Zambia 27461.049
Hall, A.V. [811], South Africa 27902.000
Criltbert, N.F., Tanzania 29764.000
Robinson, E.A. [4844], Tanzania 29830.000
Richards, H.M. [10672], Zambia 30906.000
Tweedie, E.M. [2194] 30963.000
Richards, H.M. [12473], Zambia 30969.000
Richards, H.M. [5012], Zambia 30972.000
Richards, H.M. [10996], Zambia 30976.000
Milne-Redhead, E. [3769] 30979.000
Holmes [0120] 30982.000
Zimbabwe 30986.000
Rand, R.F. [1460], Zimbabwe 31068.000
Zimbabwe 31178.000
Rule, R.H. [1192], Myanmar 31209.000
Wild, H. [G.H.27241], Zimbabwe 31265.000
Morze, G. [165], Zambia 31759.000
Morze, G. [160], Zambia 31768.000
Morze, G. [140], Zambia 31788.000
Pabot [190], Brazil 31860.000
India 32362.000
Richards, M. [22945], Zambia 32485.000
Richards, H.M. [22936], Zambia 32486.000
Richards, H.M. [22842], Zambia 32487.000
Richards, H.M. [22939], Zambia 32489.000
Richards, H.M. [22155], Zambia 33010.000
Richards, H.M. [22944], Zambia 33011.000
Kenya 33024.000
Kenya 33035.000
Nigeria 33040.000
Archbold, M.E., Tanzania 33043.000
I.C.B.E.N. [47], Nigeria 33062.000
I.C.B.E.N. [719], Nigeria 33063.000
Williamson, G. [806], Zambia 33113.000
Williamson, G. [967], Zambia 33123.000
Williamson, G. [832], Zambia 33126.000
Williamson, G. [274], Zambia 33157.000
Williamson, G. [241], Zambia 33166.000
Williamson, G. [340], Zambia 33181.000
Richards, H.M. [22951], Zambia 33206.000
Richards, H.M. [22938], Zambia 33235.000
Renvoize, S.A. [1493], Tanzania 33245.000
Williamson, G. [337], Zambia 33727.000
Zambia 33780.000
Williamson, G. [262], Zambia 33794.000
Williamson, G. [833], Zambia 33817.000
Williamson, G. [145], Zambia 33902.000
Williamson, G. [387], Zambia 33903.000
Zambia 33964.000
Williamson, G. [276], Zambia 33969.000
Williamson, G. [135], Zambia 33971.000
Williamson, G. [943], Zambia 33991.000
Williamson, G. [335], Zambia 34098.000
Williamson, G. [645], Zambia 34406.000
Williamson, G. [627], Zambia 34416.000
Williamson, G. [272], Zambia 34438.000
Williamson, G. [253], Zambia 34448.000
Cribb, P. [10548], Tanzania 36745.000
Ash [1189], Ethiopia 37520.000
Leedal, G.P. [5140], Tanzania 40297.000
Taylor, P. [16308], Ecuador 41521.000
Harley, R.M. [22397A], Brazil 47758.000
la Croix, I. [1090], Congo 57103.000
Stannard, B. [H51639], Brazil 57927.000
Harley, R.M. [H50759], Brazil 57928.000
Nic Lughadha, E. [H51080], Brazil 57955.000
Stannard, B. [H52833], Brazil 57968.000
Stannard, B. [H52818], Brazil 58978.000
Stannard, B. [H51675], Brazil 58979.000
Nic Lughadha, E. [H51068], Brazil 58982.000
Harley, R.M. [21312], Brazil 60159.000
Harley, R.M. [22750], Brazil 60160.000
Harley, R.M. [22810], Brazil 60161.000
Harley, R.M. [22874], Brazil 60163.000
Harley, R.M. [22530], Brazil 60165.000
Harley, R.M. [22628], Brazil 60166.000
Archbold, M.E. [815A], Tanzania 6049.155
Williamson, G. [304], Zambia 6049.418
Williamson, G. [685], Zambia 6049.419
Williamson, G. [275], Zambia 6049.427
Williamson, G. [296], Zambia 6049.428
Augustine, J. [17842], India 60765.000
Harley, R.M. [21304], Brazil 61316.000
Cable, S. [327], Cameroon 61693.000
Cheek, M. [9495], Cameroon 61748.000
Cheek, M. [9368], Cameroon 61749.000
Cheek, M. [9494], Cameroon 61751.000
Fleming, V. [8], Ecuador 61876.000
Renvoize, S.A. [2017], Tanzania 7357.000
Williamson, G. [303], Zambia 900.034
Williamson, G. [293], Zambia 900.059
70532.000
70538.000
Du Puy, D.J. [M884], Madagascar 72262.000
Du Puy, B. [MB666], Madagascar 72594.000
Lughadha, E.N. [H51022], Brazil 73103.000
Laessoe, T. [H52530], Brazil 73107.000
Chase, M.W.C. [82108] 75706.000
Holmes, Zambia 77364.000
Holmes [8], Zambia 77375.000
Holmes [8], Zambia 77389.000
Holmes [113 or 108 or 107 9] 77390.000
Holmes [8], Zambia 77392.000
Cable, S. [222], Cameroon 77441.000
Bardot - Vaucoulon, M. [1579], Madagascar K000718015
Melo, E. [PCD1210], Bahia K000886523
Harley, R.M. [PCD 3114], Bahia K000886525
Burchell [6733-2], Brazil K000847500
Gardner [2318], Brazil K000847502
Gardner [3988], Brazil K000847507
Burchell [7036], Brazil K000847510
Heringer, E.P. [6121], Brazil K000847518
Pirani, J.R. [1576], Brazil K000847528
Filgueiras, T.S. [2349], Brazil K000847525
Harley, R.M. [10590], Brazil K000847512
Gardner [3988], Brazil K000847509
Lance, K. [135], Madagascar 66838.000
Hromadnik [s.n.], Brazil K000847530
Heringer, E.P. [18116], Brazil K000847517
Holmes [8], Zambia 77377.000
Holmes [8], Zambia 77391.000
Schessl, M. [3010], Brazil K000847522
Harley, R.M. [11485], Brazil K000847515
Glaziou, A. [22169], Brazil K000847501
Roberts, D.L. [190], Madagascar 78074.000
Holmes [8], Zambia 77394.000
Maitland, T.D. [1398], Cameroon K000106458
Harley, R.M. [PCD 3783], Bahia K000886522
Gardner [3453], Brazil K000847511
Holmes [8], Zambia 77361.000
Heringer, E.P. [6332], Brazil K000847503
Drège, J.F. [4568], South Africa K000061939 holotype
Pirani, J.R. [1530], Brazil K000847527
Brunt, M.A. [647], Cameroon K000106505
Walter, B.M.T. [3264], Brazil K000847499
Mendonça, R.C. [1338], Brazil K000847523
Filgueiras, T.S. [2349], Brazil K000847526
Gardner [3992], Brazil K000847514
s.coll. [3986], Brazil K000847508
Gardner [3452], Brazil K000847506
Glaziou, A.F.M. [19903], Brazil K000940848
Holmes, Zambia 77363.000
Holmes [14], Zambia 77378.000
Holmes [14], Zambia 77376.000
Gardner [3987], Brazil K000847504
Gardner [3987], Brazil K000847505
Sanford, W.W. [5518], Cameroon K000106507
Mendonça, R.C. [1353], Brazil K000847524
Holmes [8], Zambia 77393.000
Harley, R.M. [54218], Bahia K000886524
Heringer, E.P. [6066], Brazil K000847516
Hatschbach, G.G. [59952], Brazil K000847529
Maitland, T.D. [1669], Cameroon K000106459
Harley, R.M. [15715], Bahia K000886521
s.coll. [s.n.], South Africa K000061938 holotype
Mendonça, R.C. [4238], Brazil K000847519

First published in Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4: 44 (1805)

Accepted by

  • Batista, J.A.N., de Bem Bianchetti, L. & De J.G.Miranda, Z (2006). A revision of Habenaria section Macroceratitae (Orchidaceae) in Brazil Brittonia 58: 10-41.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.C. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2001). Orchidoideae (Part 1) Genera Orchidacearum 2: 1-416. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • WCVP (2021). World Checklist of Vascular Plants, version 2.0. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://wcvp.science.kew.org/ Retrieved 28 April 2021

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • F.T.A. 7: 206.
  • Sp. Pl. 4: 44(1805)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Sp. Pl. 4: 44 (1805).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by B. Pettersson [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Sp. Pl. 4: 44 (1805)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
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© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
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