Skip to main content
This genus is accepted, and its native range is Himalaya to Russian Far East, Subarctic America to N. Central & E. U.S.A.

[O-EM]
Distribution

Three to perhaps six species distributed in China, Japan, the Himalayan region, and North America. (JW).

Ecology

Members of the genus Galearis are terrestrial orchids with rhizomes and fleshy roots (Hunt 1971 ). They can grow at high elevations, as seen with Himalayan members of the genus, e.g. G. stracheyi (Hook. f.) P. F. Hunt grows at 3600-4800 m in the Himalayas (Garhwal to Bhutan) and G. spathulata (Lindl. ) P. F. Hunt at 3300-5000 m in the Himalayas and Tibet (Hara et al. 1978). In the USA, G. spectabilis is an inhabitant of damp, deciduous forests and is a 'summer-green' species, its leaves appearing in May and not withering until the autumn. The underground storage organs develop simultaneously with the foliage leaves and reach full size in the late autumn when the leaves and old roots are senescing (Rasmussen 1995). Seeds dispersed by G. spectabilis following fruitset in the autumn can remain viable in the soil for over six months as demonstrated in experimental sowing trials performed in the field in Maryland, SA, when seeds sown in November started to germinate in the following June (Rasmussen and Whigham 1993). Galearis spectabilis seedlings start to form mycorrhiza about 21 weeks after germination begins. The subsequent mycorrhizomes are long and slender in shape, usually with small, lateral shoots, and it is from these that the first leafy shoots and underground storage o rgans are produced in the spring (Rasmussen 1995). (RN).

General Description

Small to medium-sized herbs. Rootstock fibrous to fleshy, borne from a very short rhizome. Stelll scapose, glabrous. Leaves one or two, basal, suborbicular to broadly elliptic, obtuse, fleshy, unspotted. Inflorescence a lax, up to 15-flowered raceme; floral braces leafy, conspicuous, narrowly elliptic, acute. Flowers showy. Sepals and petals purplish or lilac-pink, lip white or pale pink, sometimes entirely white. Dorsal and lateral sepal connivent with petals, forming a hood over column, glabrous. Labellum entire or rarely obscurely three-lobed, spurred, broadly rhomboid-cuneate, elliptic or ovate, obtuse, margin undulate, spur stout. Column short, stout; anther loculi separate; pollinia two, each with a caudicle and viscidium, which are enclosed in a solitary bilobed bursicle situated above the stigma and nectary orifice or attached to a solitary viscidium enclosed in a bursicle. (JW).

[O-EM]
Distribution

Two species distributed in Japan (Honshu) and on the border between Myanmar and south-west China (Yunnan). (QW).

General Description

Perennial sympodial herbs. Rootstock fibrous, fleshy, pilose. Tubers absent. Stem short, with two cataphylls. Leaves basal, one or two, ovate, attenuate at base, obtuse or mucronate-apiculate, unspotted. Inflorescence densely (2) 3-6-flowered, erect or nodding, terminal; peduncle naked; rachis short; floral bracts leafy, lowermost often longer than flowers. Flowers resupinate, white with a basal yellow area on labellum, or pink. Sepals and petals free. Sepals ovate-truncate, oblong, elliptic, or obliquely lingulate, acute or obtuse, sometimes apically serrulate. Petals cuneate or narrowly triangular-ovate, acute or obtuse. Labellum spurred, ovate-lanceolate, cuneate at base, emarginate with a small central tooth, or subobtuse, deflexed or spreading, spur ovoid to globose, much shorter than ovary. Column short; stigma linear, transverse, lobes separate; rostellum three-lobed, plicate, side lobes triangular, acute, porrect, mid-lobe deflexed; anther elliptic, loculi parallel; pollinia two, attached to a solitary naked, elongate viscidium; bursicle absent. Ovary shortly pedicellate (in C. fauriei; ? C. doyonensis). Capsule obovate, slightly incurved at apex. (QW).

Ecology

Chondradenia is a terrestrial herb that grows on mica-schist in montane grassland at 3500-4200 m, as in Honshu, Japan, where it is a rare species (Ohwi 1965). (GW, RN).

[O-EM]
Distribution

A genus of two species endemic to China (Xizang, Hebei, Shanxi, Sichuan, Qinghai). (JW /PC).

Ecology

Plants of Aceratorchis grow in alpine meadows, steep gritty pastures, grassy slopes facing south, and on shady rocks between about 3000-4500 m. (JW).

General Description

Perennial, rhizomatous herbs. Rhizome stolon-like. Tubers absent. Stem with two cataphylls. Leaves basal, solitary (rarely two), petiolate; lamina elliptic or oblong-elliptic, obtuse, fleshy, unspotted. Inflorescence few flowered, erect, terminal; peduncle naked; rachis short; floral bracts leafy, longer than flowers. Flowers resupinate, purple with white area on lip, or white. Sepals and petals connivent, forming a hood, ovate-oblong to elliptic-oblong, obtuse. Labellum entire, ligulate, entire, lacking a spur. Column short; stigma two notched; rostellum distinct; anther ellipsoid, loculi parallel; pollinia two, attached to a solitary viscidium enclosed in a well-formed or indistinct bursicle. Ovary twisted, sessile. Capsule cylindrical. (JW/PC).

[O-EM]
General Description

Small to medium-sized herb. Rootstock fibrous, borne from a slender, branching rhizome. Stem scapose, glabrous. Leaf solitary, basal, ovate to suborbicular, fleshy, unspotted. Inflorescence a lax, up to 15 flowered raceme; floral bracts narrowly elliptic, about 10 mm long. Flowers white to pale pink, lip variously marked with purple-red. Dorsal sepal and petals connivent, forming a hood over column, glabrous. Lateral sepals spreading. Labellum three-lobed, spurred, mid-lobe dilated or bilobed, spur slender, decurved. Column short, erect; anther loculi parallel, contiguous; pollinia two, viscidia enclosed in a solitary bursicle above orifice to nectary, flanked o n either side by a conspicuous stigmatic process. (JW).

Ecology

Amerorchis rotundifolia is a rhizomatous-stoloniferous terrestrial orchid that grows along streams and in wet, mossy woodland or swamps on calcareous soils with good drainage (Rickett 1966; Hitchcock et al. 1969; Scoggan 1978). In Wisconsin in the United States, for example, where it is a rare species at the edge of its range, A. rotundifolia is found almost exclusively in calcareous bogs on which white cedar and larch are the dominant species. It is more commonly found in the boreal forest region of northern Canada, which is characterized by large areas of spruce and muskeg (Catling 1984). Fungi forming mycorrhizal associations with A. rotundifolia in the field in Canada have been identified as Epulorhiza calendulina (Zelmer and Currah 199 5). Flowering of A. rotundifolia takes place from June through July. ln some areas it is under threat from human activities where its woodland habitat is being destroyed by urban expansion (Luer 1984). (RN).

Distribution

A monospecific genus distributed across Canada, the northern United States of America, and southern Greenland. (JW).

Native to:

Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Arkansas, British Columbia, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, East Himalaya, Georgia, Greenland, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., Labrador, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, Northwest Territorie, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, South Carolina, Tennessee, Tibet, Vermont, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yukon

Galearis Raf. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Herb. Raf.: 71 (1833)

Accepted by

  • Bateman, R.M., James, K.E., Luo, Y.B., Lauri, R.K., Fulcher, T., Cribb, P.J., & Chase, M.W. (2009). Molecular phylogenetics and morphological reappraisal of the Platanthera clade (Orchidaceae: Orchidinae) prompts expansion of the generic limits of Galearis and Platanthera Annals of Botany 104: 431-445.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.C. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2001). Orchidoideae (Part 1) Genera Orchidacearum 2: 1-416. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Orchideae: e-monocot.org
All Rights Reserved