Primula L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.


Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Perennial rosulate scapose herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves all basal, entire or lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers heterostylous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence an umbel or of numerous superimposed verticils or rarely racemose or spicate, very rarely solitary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts foliaceous or setaceous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular or campanulate, sometimes inflated, persistent, lobes 5
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla tube as long as or longer than calyx, limb usually spreading, 5-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule globose to cylindrical, usually as long as calyx, dehiscing by 5–10 valves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous, angular.
Widespread from Eurasia south to India, Indo-China and to New Guinea, N Africa and Ethiopia; also found in Alaska, Canada and Greenland, N and W USA to New Mexico and Mexico; S Chile and Argentina and Falkland Is.
Primula (from Lat. primulus, very first, the diminutive of primus, first or foremost).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Québec, Romania, Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sumatera, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon

Introduced into:

Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Connecticut, Massachusetts

Primula L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 142 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1996). Flora of China 15: 1-387. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).


Flora of Iraq

  • Linnaeus, Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 70 (1754);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1, 142 (1753);
  • Pax, Pflanzenr. 4, 237 : 17 (1905)

  • Flora of Iraq

  • Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China

    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.