Bignoniaceae Juss.

First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 137. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (1789)nom. cons.
This family is accepted

Descriptions

Bignoniaceae, M. A. Diniz. Flora Zambesiaca 8:3. 1988

Morphology General Habit
Trees and shrubs, sometimes straggling (sometimes climbers, very rarely herbaceous), mostly unarmed, not lactiferous
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules absent, rarely with pseudostipules (external scales of axillary shoots) well developed, sometimes foliacepus
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually opposite, rarely verticillate or alternate, imparipinnate or bipinnate (not in Flora Zambesiaca area), 1-jugate or simple, sometimes the terminal leaflet replaced by a tendril (not in Flora Zambesiaca area)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers zygomorphic, usually showy and in several-flowered terminal or axillary panicles or racemes, sometimes reduced to a fascicle or solitary flower
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx gamosepalous of various shapes, usually 5-dentate or -lobed or almost truncate or spathaceously split
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla gamopetalous bilabiate or not, with a conspicuous campanulate, infundibuliform or tubular tube and 5-lobed, limb usually imbricate in aestivation
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens epipetalous, usually 4, didynamous with l posticous staminode, not so often 5 equal stamens, very rarely 2 (not in Flora Zambesiaca area) adnate to the corolla tube, included or exserted; filaments slender, often dilated at the base; anthers 2-thecous, rarely l-thecous (not in Flora Zambesiaca area), usually widely divergent or divaricate, dehiscing longitudinally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Nectaries
Disk hypogynous, nectariferous, annual or tubular, sometimes absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary superior, syncarpus 2-carpellary, typically bilocular with axile placentation or unilocular and with parietal placencation (Kigelia); ovules numerous in each locule, anatropous; style 1, terminal with bilamellate stigma
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit usually capsular, dehiscing by 2 loculicidal or septicidal valves, perpendicular or parallel to the septum, or fleshy and indehiscent (Kigelia)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous, compressed and winged in the species with capsular fruits, wingless seeds in the species with fleshy fruits, without endosperm; embryo usually flat; cotyledons flattened, rarely folded, foliaceous
[FZ]

Bignoniaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs, sometimes scandent, very rarely herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, rarely alternate, mostly compound, digitate or pinnate, sometimes the terminal leaflet tendril-like (but not in the native genera of W.Africa); stipules absent, pseudostipules present in some genera
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers often showy, hermaphrodite, more or less zygomorphic
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, closed or open in bud, truncate or 5-toothed, sometimes spathaceous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla with 5 imbricate lobes sometimes forming 2 lips, the upper of 2, the lower of 3 lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Anthers connivent in pairs or rarely free, 2-celled, opening lengthwise; staminode representing the fifth stamen often short, sometimes absent, often 3 present when only two stamens Stamens alternate with the corolla-lobes, only 4 or 2 perfect
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Nectaries
Disk usually present
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary superior, 2-celled with 2 placentas in each cell or 1-celled with parietal bifid placentas Style terminal, 2-lipped; ovules numerous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit capsular or fleshy and indehiscent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds often winged, without endosperm; embryo straight
[FWTA]

Timothy M. A. Utteridge and Laura V. S. Jennings (2022). Trees of New Guinea. Kew Publishing. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Distribution
A family of about 104 genera and approximately 860 species, mainly in tropical America. In New Guinea only seven genera are recorded and, not including the ones only known from cultivation, only four genera with about five species can be considered arborescent.
Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs or lianas, twigs often lenticellate, nodes sometimes with glands
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules absent but sometimes proximal leaflets on compound leaves forming pseudo-stipules
Morphology General
Sap absent. Leaves compound (digitate or imparipinnate), rarely simple, opposite, usually decussate, rarely in whorls, margins entire to serrate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal, axillary or on old wood, thyrsoid to racemose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually very showy and large, bisexual, 5-merous; calyx connate; corolla sympetalous, campanulate to trumpet shaped or salver-shaped, mostly zygomorphic, lobes equal or not, valvate or imbricate in bud, colourful; stamens 5, sometimes with 1 staminode, often inserted on the rim of the basal tube, often didynamous, exceeding the corolla tube; ovary superior, syncarpous, 2 carpellate, style terminal-Fruit a 2-valved capsule
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds many, usually with hyaline wings.
[TONG]

Timothy Utteridge & Gemma Bramley (2020). The Kew Tropical Plant Families Identification Handbook, Second Edition. Kew Publishing Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Note
Leaves opposite; 2–3 foliolate, pinnate or palmate, less often simple. Corolla tubular, usually zygomorphic; ovary superior. Fruit a bivalved capsule, rarely fleshy and indehiscent. Seeds numerous, often flat, winged.
Recognition
Characters of similar families: Rubiaceae: stipules, interpetiolar stipules, inferior ovary. Rutaceae: parts of calyx and corolla free. Leguminosae: stipules, corolla not tubular, fruit a legume. Lamiaceae: up to 4 nutlets or 1–4(14)-seeded drupe.
Morphology General Habit
Trees, or lianas, sometimes shrubs, rarely herbs; stipules absent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, rarely alternate, 2–3-foliolate, pinnate or palmate, less often simple; terminal pinna of lianas often a tendril
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence solitary or in racemes or thyrses, terminal, or axillary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers often showy, usually zygomorphic, rarely actinomorphic; calyx 5-lobed, sometimes spathaceous, rarely unlobed, rarely with calyptras; corolla tubular, 5-lobed, often 2-lipped, often campanulate, lobes well developed or reduced; stamens usually 4, didynamous, with additional staminode; occasionally only 2 stamens fertile, 3 staminodial; rarely with 5 fertile stamens; ovary superior, 2-carpellate, bilocular with a septum, sometimes unilocular with axile placentation or 2 or 4 intruding parietal placentae; ovules usually numerous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a bivalved capsule, mostly dehiscent, rarely fleshy and indehiscent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds often flat, winged (wind-dispersed), more rarely thicker and corky (water-dispersed), or embedded in pulp when fruit indehiscent.
Distribution
A pantropical family with its centre of diversity in northern South America: 110 genera and c. 790 species.
Ecology
Typical habitat is tropical rain forest or dry forest, savanna or cerrado.
Description Author
Gemma Bramley
[KTROP-FIH]

Bignoniaceae, Sally Bidgood, Bernard Verdcourt, Kaj Vollesen. Cobaeaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs or woody climbers, rarely (not native in Flora area) perennial or shrubby herbs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, pinnate, bipinnate, digitately 2–3-foliolate or (not native in Flora area) simple, terminal leaflet sometimes replaced by a tendril.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules absent but pseudostipules often developed and sometimes foliaceous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers large and showy, bisexual, in several to many-flowered terminal or axillary racemes or panicles, or in fascicles, or solitary on dwarf shoots.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx gamosepalous, 5-toothed or -lobed to almost truncate or splitting spathaceously.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla gamopetalous, from almost symmetric to strongly bilaterally symmetrical; tube campanulate to infundibuliform or cylindrical; limb 5-lobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4, didynamous or (more rarely) subequal, adnate to the corolla tube, included or exserted, staminode often present.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 2-thecous (rarely 1-thecous), usually divergent, dehiscing longitudinally.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk usually conspicuous, annular or tubular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary superior, 2-carpellate, 2-locular with axile placentation or ( Kigelia) unilocular with parietal placentation.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary Ovules
Ovules numerous in each locule.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style one, terminal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma bilobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by 2 loculicidal or septicidal valves, perpendicular or parallel to the septum, or ( Kigelia) fleshy and indehiscent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous, compressed and winged in species with capsular fruits, wingless in species with indehiscent fruits.
[FTEA]

George R. Proctor (2012). Flora of the Cayman Isands (Second Edition). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers perfect, zygomorphic, often large, usually in cymes or racemes, sometimes solitary or clustered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx bell-shaped, usually 5-toothed or -lobed, sometimes truncate or spathe-like; corolla gamopetalous, 5-lobed, sometimes 2-lipped
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4 (rarely 2), inserted in the corolla-tube; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise, the cells often widely divergent; 1–3 staminodes sometimes present
Morphology General Habit
A hypogynous, ring-like or cup-shaped disc present Trees, shrubs, or vines, rarely herbs; leaves opposite or rarely alternate, simple, trifoliolate, pinnately compound or sometimes digitate; if trifoliolate, the terminal leaflet often modified to a tendril; stipules absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary superior, 2-celled, with numerous ovules borne on 2 axile placentas in each cavity, or the ovary 1-celled with 2 bifid parietal placentas; style terminal, simple with 2-lobed stigma
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit indehiscent or else a 2-valved capsule; seeds without endosperm, those from capsular fruits often winged.
Distribution
A pantropical family of about 120 genera and 800 species, the great majority in tropical America.
[Cayman]

Uses

Use
Jacaranda, Spathodea, Pyrostegia, Tecomaria, Tabebuia, Crescentia and Campsis are commonly planted as ornamentals in the tropics and subtropics.
[KTROP-FIH]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of the Cayman Islands

    • Flora of the Cayman Islands
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Trees of New Guinea

    • Trees of New Guinea
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • The Kew Tropical Plant Families Identification Handbook

    • The Kew Tropical Plant Families Identification Handbook
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0